Albany was first settled in the early 1600's and was incorporated 1686. It became the capital of New York in 1797. It is one of the most well-known of the 13 original colonies and the oldest continually chartered towns in the United States. The present location of the city was first settled by the Dutch as a commerce center in 1614 as Fort Nassau and in 1624 as Fort Orange. Commercial fur trading encouraged permanent residents who settled around Ft Red and established a town known as Beverwijck.
When the British took over they relabeled the settlement Albany in 1664, for the Duke of Albany, England. The settlement was formally chartered in 1686 with the issuance of the Dongan Charter, the most well-known effective town charter in the nation and possibly the longest-running device of public govt in the Western Hemisphere.
Albany is one of the first places on the globe to set up public water mains and sewage collections. It is also one of the first places on the globe to set up natural gas collections and power. This technological innovation introduced significant new market into the town and around areas during the 1800s.
Located on the northern end of the navigable Hudson River and the southern terminus of the Erie Channel and home to some of the first railway systems on the globe Albany became a major hub of transportation. Albany's main exports at time were alcohol, material, released works, and ironworks.
Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most population places in the nation, a distinction that it retained until the 1860's. In the last millennium, the town opened one of the first professional air fields on the globe, the forerunner of present-day Albany Worldwide Flight terminal. The 1920's saw the increase of a highly effective governmental organization run by the Democratic Party. The town's sky line modified in the 1960's with the construction of the Empire State Plaza and the uptown university of SUNY Albany, mainly under the tenure of Governor Nelson Rockefeller.
While Albany experienced a decrease in its population due to city crowding, many of its unique local communities were saved from destruction through the efforts of Gran Erastus Corning 2nd, the longest-serving mayor of any town in the state of New York. Recently, the city has embarked on development in the high-technology market with emphasis on the nanotechnology industry. Albany has been a center of education for over a millennium, with much of the rest of its economic climate reliant on condition and medical care services. The town has knowledgeable a recovery from the city decrease of the Seventies and Early, with recognizable progression developing in the town's central area and midtown local communities. Albany is known for its comprehensive record, lifestyle, structure, and organizations of education. Albany has won the All-America City Prize in both 1991 and 2009.
According to the 2010 census there were 97,866 persons living in the city. The population density in 2010 was 4,572/ sq mi. There were 46,362 homes at an average density of 2,166/ sq mi. 5,205 of these homes were vacant at the time. The ethnicity of the city was 57% Caucasian; 30% African American; less then 1% Native American; 5% Asian; 10% Hispanic or Latino of any race. The top five ancestry groups were Irish (18%), Italian (12%), German (10%), English (5%), and Polish (4%); (33%) other. The city had 20% under the age of 18, 19% 18 to 24, 29% 25 to 44, 18% 45 to 64, and 13% who were 65 or older. The median average age was 31.4 years. For every 100 females there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. Some 81.3% of the population had completed high school or earned an equivalency diploma. There were 40,719 homes in 2000, of which 22% had children under the age of 18 at home, 25% were married couples living together, 16% had a female householder with no spouse present, and 54% were non-families. 41% of all households consisted of single individuals and 11% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.95. The median income per household was $42,529, and the median income per family was $45,210 (male, year-round worker) and $38,382 (female, year-round worker). The per capita income for the city was $25,880. About 16% of families and 21% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28% of those under age 18 and 12% of those age 65 or over.